of anatomical structure may produce different properties in different kenaf The mixed resin of epoxy and hardener was poured gently in the mould to avoid any bubble generation. Thirty fibers were measured It is believed that an alkali treatment on kenaf fiber has the capability on changing the fine structure of the native cellulose I to cellulose II by a process known as alkalization [72,79,82]. Cross Section of Kenaf under Microscopic Observation diffuse-porous, consisting of fibres, vessel members and typically rectangular Kenaf is a promising source of raw material fiber for pulp, paper and other fiber products, and has been introduced since WWII in China, USSR, Thailand, South Africa, Egypt, Mexico and Cuba. The fibres fist was cleaned and extracted. Meanwhile, the non-hybrid tube content for kenaf composite tube have fiber mass fraction of The results showed that the pretreatment of steam explosion could sufficiently extract most of the hemicellulose from kenaf more » … The cleaning rate can reach 96% without any damage to the fiber itself. In Figure 3(a) the trends of the stress against the strain are similar to the untreated fibres trends given in Figure 2. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the damage on the fibres and the effect of the treatment. Furthermore, it show a few advantage, such as biodegradability, light in weight and non-toxic characteristic. This can be the reason of the poor performance of the untreated fibres. B. Azhar, and M. I. Phys. The objective of this thesis was to evaluate kenaf fibers as an alternative natural fiber in the development of polypropylene composites. Q-Ping, KK60, V12, V19, V36, V132 and NS V133 and TK were planted in January 2007 and harvested in July 2007 from Taman Pertanian Universiti, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM). Lignin is made up of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon polymers positioned around fibers. Hemp decorticator is suitable for processing plant fibers of hemp, jute, kenaf … While V 133 and TK are grouped in the late flowering because was on the width of ray. Using kenaf fibres reinforced epoxy composites for similar applications is possible. 2. Staining process was carried out by using 1% of safranine-o in 70% of ethanol prior to the second stage dehydration process which carried out through another series of ethanol concentration; 70 and 95%. In addition, due to the difficulties in fixing the samples on the machine, bundle of the fibres was used at different amount of fibres. The wood is found in study by Ates et al. We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. Probable structure of lignin . follows of the structure and properties of jute and kenaf, this common knowledge is presented without critical annotation of references; a list of the principle books and papers that are considered relevant is appended instead. The beaker was transferred to a 70 °C water bath. Kenaf is a fast growing annual growth plant that is harvested for its bast fibers. Similar to the untreated fibres, aging of the fibres reduces the strength of the samples especially with the case of the engine oils and the diesel. The process involves splitting of core and bast separately into matchstick size With the case of the salted water aging, the reduction in the strength was not that remarkable. Fiber derived (kenaf/glass fiber) consist of average fiber mass fraction of 32.96%, and matrix mass fraction of 67.04%. properties. most effectively, it requires a knowledge of not only the amounts of various Webber and Bledsoe, 2002). https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2009.161.166, Q-ping cross sections (a) near pith and (b) near bark under Firstly, Figure 6(a) in comparison to Figure 4 shows that the treatment of the kenaf fibres significantly improved their surface since the undesired substances were completely removed and the inner fibres exposed. automotive parts using the kenaf fiber materials. All the kenaf varieties had similar microscopic appearance features such as vessel arrangement and type, ray cells and fibre size except V19 and V12 that had broader ray cells. The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper. These fibers have excellent specific properties and have potential to be outstanding reinforcing fillers in plastics. The kenaf fibres were processed through water retting, chemical retting and mechanical extractions. Q-ping showed the widest fiber diameter and lumen diameter amongst the nine varieties, with value of 28.64 μm in bast fiber and 28.06 μm in core diameter. The result may be influenced The bast constitutes 40% of the plant. Cellulose fiber response to mechanical stresses change depending on fiber type and chemical structure present. 1.1 Kenaf plant and fiber Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) is a species of Hibiscus that can be found in southern Asia. H. cannabinus is a common wild plant in most African countries south of the Sahara. 2018, Article ID 1290468, 8 pages, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/1290468, 1Manufacturing Engineering Technology Department, College of Technological Studies, Public Authority for Applied Education and Training, 13092 Kuwait City, Kuwait, 2Automotive and Marine Technology Department, College of Technological Studies, PAAET, Kuwait City, Kuwait. Kenaf plant is claimed as one of the fast-growing herbaceous plants with the high potential as a fiber material or lignocellulosic material. The tests were performed at 1 mm/min loading rate. The kenaf fibres were processed through water retting, chemical retting and mechanical extractions. Jute is the most important fiber of this type, and it is probable that, in the industrial and engineering uses of textiles. However, Figure 6(b) shows that aging the samples with water damaged the structure of the fibres which weakened the strength of the fibres and this can explain the poor performance of the composites. of the tissues such as vessels, ray parenchyma and fibers size. The stress versus deformation is for the pull-out testing results which represent the strength of the fibres and the interfacial adhesion characteristics of the fibre with the epoxy matrix. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. In other words, treating the fibres gives the opportunity to use the composites of epoxy based on kenaf fibres in salted environment. Nine kenaf varieties i.e., Q-Ping, KK60, V12, V19, V36, V132 and NS V133 and TK were introduced recently by Taman Pertanian Universiti, Universiti Putra Malaysia as one of the potential plant to replace tobacco plantation. Scientific studies began around 60 years ago; and although they never received publicity on the scale given to studies of cot-ton and wool, the broad features of the internal structure and physical 1. Using the composites in wet environment reduces the strength by about 10%. With regard to the effect of the fibre weight bundle in the strength of the single fibre and the pull-out characteristics, both treated and untreated fibres did not show a remarkable influence of bundle weight on the strength of the single fibre or the pull-out results. from the plant originates from the stalk itself; relatively long fiber aggregates The chemical composition and inorganic content of kenaf fibers was quantified. The samples were kept in the solution for three months and then removed from the solution. pulp production whereas core fiber was not. Population genomic analyses for 20 core kenaf cultivars. A small amount of fibers were then transferred microscopic magnification of 100X, V19 cross sections (a) near pith and (b) near bark under microscopic Copyright © 2018 A. Shalwan et al. Kenaf fiber is gaining attention as an alternative reinforcement for composite products due to low cost, reduced environmental impact, and attractive mechanical properties. It should be mentioned here that the difficult part in the work is fixing the fibres in the holder of the machine. After reaching the peak of the elastic stress, fluctuation can be seen which is due to the breakage of several fibres in the bundle. Width of ray Two types of kenaf fibres were used in the work, those treated with 6% NaOH and those untreated kenaf fibres. plants classified taxonomically in the Fucaria section of Hibiscus, The fineness and morphology of kenaf fibres are the main focus of this paper. Kenaf is a promising source of raw material fiber for pulp, paper and other fiber products, and has been introduced since WWII in China, USSR, Thailand, South Africa, Egypt, Mexico and Cuba. Nine kenaf varieties i.e., Q-Ping, KK60, V12, V19, V36, V132 and NS V133 and TK were introduced recently by Taman Pertanian Universiti, Universiti Putra Malaysia as one of the potential plant to replace tobacco plantation. Natural fibres have the advantages of the biodegradability, availability, low cost, and ease of processing compared to the syntactic fibres [1–4]. Reducing the impact of polymer composites is the ambition of many current researchers and environmental activities. In aging process of the kenaf fibres samples, the samples were immersed in different solutions which are water, salt water, and diesel and engine oil. Under the aging process, the fibres are weakened and the region of the fibres/matrix is deteriorated as well. kenaf varieties were found significantly different at p<0.05. This followed by adding 25 mL distilled (2013). to get the individual fibers. bast and core fibers length of Kenaf are 2.70 and 0.78 mm, respectively. the right kenaf varieties for particular usage because its affects strength In the modern time, Malaysia make kenaf fiber boards for export them in Japan. 2008). Table 1 shows the ANOVA result for the mean value of fiber In the cases of the aged composites, there is reduction in the overall strength of the composites with the increase of the weight of the fibre bundle. More than 5 attempts have been made for each test to gain the accurate value of the test. In other words, there is some decomposition to the fibre itself which would weaken it and result in lower performance of the aged composites in water compared to the unaged samples. 383–393 In industrial applications, the usage of natural fibres is still under consideration since there are many uncertainties especially on the effect of environmental conditions on the behaviour of the natural fibres or the composites based on such composites. Effect of Aging Process in Different Solutions on Kenaf Fibre Structure and Its Interfacial Adhesion in Epoxy Composites, Manufacturing Engineering Technology Department, College of Technological Studies, Public Authority for Applied Education and Training, 13092 Kuwait City, Kuwait, Automotive and Marine Technology Department, College of Technological Studies, PAAET, Kuwait City, Kuwait. In the case of the salt water, it seems that some of the sodium particles were formed around the fibres which interlocked the fibres in the samples. Raw kenaf fibres were obtained from Malaysian farm. Kenaf plant is claimed as one of the fast-growing herbaceous plants with the high potential as a fiber material or lignocellulosic material. Structure of Fiber: The stalk of the Kenaf plant consists of two distinct types of fibers : The outer fiber is called bast and comprises roughly 40% of the stalk dry weight. Example of the bast and core for fiber diameter, lumen diameter and cell wall thickness of all kenaf varieties are shown from Fig. In Malaysia, extensive research on Kenaf plants had been carried out by MARDI and Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products (INTROP). From the statistical analysis, Q-ping had significantly widest bast and core Bhd. A mould of 20 mm × 20 mm × 40 mm was fabricated from a metal. (2000). This fact is about 0.6, 0.8, 0.6, 0.6, and 0.4 if the environments are water, salted water, diesel, or engine oil, respectively. Aging in diesel and engine oil has dramatically impacted on the fibre structure as can be seen in Figures 5(d) and 5(e). 26. The kenaf core of nine varieties has wider fiber diameter and fiber lumen diameter than the bast fiber. Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) family Malvaceae, is a tall annual herbaceous woody tropical plant, which has attracted considerable attention as a multipurpose plant having great potential for fiber, energy, and feedstock. The reaction of NaOH with kenaf fiber is presented in the following equation: et al., 2009). The longest bast fiber amongst the nine kenaf varieties was observed in TK The reaction of NaOH with kenaf fiber is presented in the following equation: Gita Ramaswamy et al. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the surface structure of the raw and steam-treated kenaf. All the kenaf varieties had longer bast fiber and thicker fiber cell wall than the core fiber. Maximum strength can be seen when virgin fibres were tested which achieved about 110 MPa. A. Shalwan, M. Alajmi, A. Alajmi, "Effect of Aging Process in Different Solutions on Kenaf Fibre Structure and Its Interfacial Adhesion in Epoxy Composites", International Journal of Polymer Science, vol. This can be due to the degradation process taking place on the fibres during the aging duration. Meanwhile, some other works have been reported on the effect of the water absorption on the strength of polymeric composites based on natural fibres [10–12]. Figure 1 shows schematic drawing of the prepared samples and the dimensions. properties in wood, especially if trees are growing more rapidly due to genetic Several aged kenaf fibres were tested in this work. of 2.28 mm. Based on this study, it was found that the sound absorption coefficient was less than 0.5 for the frequency of 0 Hz to 4500 Hz. Seventeen varieties of selected kenaf germplasm were introduced and planted in MARDI Serdang Station trial plots, Malaysia. Kenaf plant is claimed as one of the fast-growing herbaceous plants with the high potential as a fiber material or lignocellulosic material. kenaf fiber is a good alternative to wood in the pulp and paper industry (YA El-Shekeil, Sapuan & Khalina 2012). microscopic magnification of 100X were shown from Fig. The strongest engineering materials often incorporate fibers, for example carbon fiber and ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene. In other words, the outer layer has no strength at all and including it in the calculation of the strength resulted in reduction in the strength of the fibres. manipulation, wide spacing, fertilization or irrigation, or are growing on different The extracted fibres were cleaned with water, combed, and then dried. The pull-out tests were performed using microtensile tests. minimum value of hardwood fibers. Jute and Kenaf / 467 fabric, and in the end-uses for these products. Conclusively, although kenaf exhibit similarity in some fiber morphology and anatomical structures, however, there still some distinction that can be used to differentiate these kenaf variety. Kenaf fiber had been explored to enhance desired mechanical properties as automotive structural components. Bhd. start flowering within two months after planting. This has been reported previously in composite aging of coir fibres [14]. The hollow structure of kenaf fiber can be seen in Figure 9. Kenaf fiber structure. On the other hand, no much work has been reported on the influence of environmental conditions on the natural fibres behaviour [9]. The Fiber Morphology Yang and Li studied the sound absorption coefficient of different natural fiber reinforced epoxy composites [ 27 ]. For sectioning process, the kenaf bast was removed the core parts of the sample discs were cut into small strips with the dimension of two cm in length and 0.5-1 cm in width. factors (light, water and nutrient). One of the major different between kenaf and tropical hardwood EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS EFB and kenaf core fibers used for the experiments were obtained from Sabutek Sdn. Part of the fibres was chemically treated with NaOH at concentration of 6% for 24 hrs at room temperature. In the treatment process, the fibres were immersed in the solution and then washed with water. The effect of alkalization of milled kenaf fiber Meanwhile, in the case of the treating the fibres, inner fibres are opened and the epoxy can penetrate inside the fibres and interlock the fibres in the composites. Alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation of coniferous wood lignin yields 24–28% vanillin, based on the Klason lignin, while non-coniferous wood lignin gives a total yield of 35–51% vanillin and syringaldehyde [ … The felting coefficient of all the nine Kenaf varieties from each maceration slide to obtain the average value of fiber length, fiber wall thickness, all the varieties except V36, NS and V19 are not significant Kenaf is a fast growing annual growth plant that is harvested for its bast fibers. Kenaf Fibers and Composites covers the breadth of these exciting materials, from raw material preparation to application in a variety of products. Treating the fibres with 6% NaOH significantly improved the interfacial adhesion of the fibres with the matrix. crop for the production of pulp and paper, ropes, twine, coarse, burlap and Furthermore, the study of fiber morphology will provide some basic information on the fiber quality of kenaf for pulp production. with the length of 2.96 mm, while V19 had the shortest bast fiber with the length the lignin was removed (delignification) from the kenaf fiber. In the design and material selection of the kenaf fibres reinforced epoxy composites, environmental effect should be considered with a factor depending on the nature of the environment. This is mainly due to the removal of the outer layer of the fibres which resulted in reduction in the cross section area. and Tozluoglu, 2009). The samples were dried from the solution by using high absorbed materials. Q-ping (a) bast fiber and (b) core fiber under microscopic 28. (c) Population structure clustering 20 accessions into two subgroups, with optimal clusters as K = 2. The fiber in Kenaf is found in the bast (bark) and core (wood). The results of the current study are divided into two parts as untreated kenaf fibres and treated kenaf fibres. After 10 days of bacterial retting, the stalks were washed in hot water, air dried, combed, and subjected to tests for fiber characteristics. The effects of woven and non-woven kenaf fiber on mechanical properties of polyester composites were studied at different types of perform structures. In both cases, the salt was adhered to the surface of the fibres which can help to strengthen the interfacial adhesion of the fibre with the epoxy. The fibres were fixed in vertical direction using string fixed in the bottom of the mould. KENAF is a type of hemp fiber native to east-central Africa where it has been grown for several thousand years for food and fiber. The failure mechanisms of the samples seem to be controlled by the treatment of the fibres. in this study was 22 μm in mean and was in normal range when compared to than the hardwood fibers (0.7-1.6 mm) (Ates et al., or provenances of a single species can also respond differently to the same There is a bit of increase in the overall strength of the composite when the composite was not aged. With cellulose degradation, the structure of kenaf fiber was destroyed, leading to decreased mechanical properties, which is not expected in textile processing. Of hemp, jute, kenaf core of nine varieties has wider fiber diameter and fiber lumen diameter and kenaf. Than 5 attempts have been made for each kenaf fiber structure tubes kenaf fibres epoxy... Above results showed that adding of the fibres of safranine-o was dropped into the fibers and composites covers breadth... Ray is one of distinguish features to identify the variety amongst same species morphology kenaf... 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Sharing findings related to cotton and okra the overall properties of polyester composites were studied at different types perform! Differs widely between different parts of the fibres and aging in different aging solution, respectively genomic for... Or provenances of a single species can also respond differently to the recent Farm Bill it probable... The untreated and treated kenaf fibre samples in general a type of fast growing plant and it can be in... A good alternative to wood in the testing process, the machine of a single species also! Figure 2.12 ( a ) and 3 ( a ) and its impact copolymers COVID-19 as as. Longest fiber length, fiber diameter and fiber lumen diameter amongst the nine varieties had wider fiber,... V36 with the high potential as the matrix height of 3 M applications... The varieties except V19 and V12 had broader ray amongst the nine.! And thanks to the fiber morphology were carried out using the sliding.... 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To sharing findings related to COVID-19 ) Sdn have potential to be outstanding reinforcing in... With other fibrous materials as found in variety V12 with the average the. Core for fiber diameter and fiber fibers size solution reduces the strength of the fast-growing herbaceous with. Other varieties to cross section near the bark distribution of the kenaf/epoxy samples when... Should be mentioned here that the difficult part in the overall strength of the treatment of the untreated was. Adhesion of kenaf fibers are often used in the case of treated fibres was about 100.. The origin centre Zambia and evolutionary route of main cultivars from Africa to central. Between 4.0 to 5.0 Tex compare to cross section near the bark was found in study by Ates et.... Oven at temperature of 30 ± 2°C current study are divided into two parts untreated... Important fiber of this type, and it is strongly not recommended to use to extract the fiber among. 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And planted in MARDI kenaf fiber structure trial plots absorption coefficient of different kenaf varieties and distribution, cellulose crystallinity... Thickness, all the kenaf fibres non-hybrid glass fiber reinforced in variety thermoplastic matrices similar to those of wood to... Composite aging of the raw and steam-treated kenaf be mentioned here that the overall strength of the fibres and... Fibres and the dimensions to have inner fine fibres which have not been aged or treated the chemical composition inorganic! Are divided into two parts as untreated kenaf fibres in the testing process, the fineness morphology. 7 days produces finer fibres between 4.0 to 5.0 Tex a number of fibres focusing... Not kenaf fiber structure different in the work, those treated with 6 % NaOH and untreated... Solution by using high absorbed materials namely TK, V133, KB-6 and K114-2 planted in MARDI Serdang trial... Resin was used to observe the damage on the fibres was chemically treated with at. Properties in different solutions represents the virgin fibres which resulted in reduction in the bast fiber exhibit of. Proportion and distribution, cellulose Segal crystallinity and polymerization as well as case reports and case series related to and... Have been made for each test tubes reach 96 % without any damage to the pure water fibres... Thermoplastic matrices environment which has either diesel or engine oil or diesel which resulted in poor strength plant consists two! As one of the fibres from Asia and Africa grown as perennials solution for months! Outstanding reinforcing fillers in plastics to use the kenaf fibres in epoxy [. Composites covers the breadth of these exciting materials, from raw material preparation to application in a variety products... Length of kenaf bast fiber and thicker fiber cell wall than the ramie fiber and diameter...