Kenaf is a warm season annual fiber crop closely related to cotton and jute. In the fabrication process, the mould was coated with a thin layer of release agent to ensure the ease of the sample removal after curing. It is native in Africa. The stress versus deformation is presented associated with the average values of the each set of tests. substances that make up kenaf, but also how those substances are distributed In addition, due to the difficulties in fixing the samples on the machine, bundle of the fibres was used at different amount of fibres. microscopic magnification of 100X, V19 cross sections (a) near pith and (b) near bark under microscopic The fiber length may influence the various According to research results (Wood 2000; Rymsza 2001; Kozlowski 2000), the kenaf yield (12–30 t/ha) is greater than those of hemp, flax, and jute, thus providing a more cost-effective raw material. Kenaf fiber is gaining attention as an alternative reinforcement for composite products due to low cost, reduced environmental impact, and attractive mechanical properties. The extracted fibres were cleaned with water, combed, and then dried. The longest fiber length was observed in variety TK (2.96 mm) followed by V36. Average of three matching results was reported. Conclusively, although kenaf exhibit similarity in some fiber morphology and anatomical structures, however, there still some distinction that can be used to differentiate these kenaf variety. Various environmental mats are produced from kenaf fibers. The effects of woven and non-woven kenaf fiber on mechanical properties of polyester composites were studied at different types of perform structures. For cell EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS EFB and kenaf core fibers used for the experiments were obtained from Sabutek Sdn. There could be built-up boundary around the fibres in the composites while it is under aging process in engine oil or diesel. Thus, this study focuses onthe effect of surface treatment of kenaf fiber on chemical structure and water absorption of kenaf filled unsaturated polyester compositefor different loadings of kenaf fiber and stearic acid. In the design and material selection of the kenaf fibres reinforced epoxy composites, environmental effect should be considered with a factor depending on the nature of the environment. start flowering within two months after planting. the right kenaf varieties for particular usage because its affects strength However, the scattered values are much less than the ones given in Figure 2 which could be due to the removal of the undesirable substances on the surface of the fibres. bast fiber is comparable to that of softwood fibers (2.7-4.6 mm) and longer The volume fraction of the fibres in the composites is the most important key in determining the amount of the fibres in the composites. The fibres fist was cleaned and extracted. Figure 2.11 . V represents the virgin fibres which have not been aged or treated. Salt water showed the least effect on the strength of the fibres. There are also four late flowering kenaf namely TK, V133, KB-6 and K114-2 planted in MARDI Serdang trial plots. were carried out using the Leitz DMRB with microscopic magnification of 400X. This study was carried out to examine the nine kenaf varieties microscopic appearance and fiber morphology because the reliable identification of these varieties is not available. The physical dimensions of the fiber are among the most important factors in Tsoumis (1991) and Voulgaridis et al. from each maceration slide to obtain the average value of fiber length, fiber In term of fiber length, all the kenaf varieties bast fiber has longer fiber than core fiber. Kenaf Fibers and Composites covers the breadth of these exciting materials, from raw material preparation to application in a variety of products. Kenaf fibres were treated chemically with 6% NaOH solution. species. The increase in the amount of the fibres in the composites would reduce the strength further with the high amount of fibres. (ii)Aging process deteriorated the strength of the kenaf/epoxy samples especially when the aging was conducted in engine oil and diesel. Bhd. In term of fiber length, all the kenaf varieties bast fiber has longer fiber than core fiber. of the kenaf fiber is greater than the ramie fiber and lesser than the baggase fiber. The various forms The treatment assists in removing all the substances on the surface of the fibres and exposing the inner structure of the fibres. Under the aging process, the fibres are weakened and the region of the fibres/matrix is deteriorated as well. Meanwhile, the non-hybrid tube content for kenaf composite tube have fiber mass fraction of 383–393 There are nine kenaf varieties i.e., Q-Ping, KK60, V12, V19, V36, V132 and The felting coefficient should be more than 70 for softwoods fines ray parenchyma. In the case of the water and salt water, the effect was not that bad. Research in the United States to use the kenaf bast (outer bark) fibers for rope began in the 1940's when jute imports from Asia were interrupted by World War II. It is produced from flowering plants in the genus Corchorus, which is in the mallow family Malvaceae.The primary source of the fiber is Corchorus olitorius, but it is considered inferior to Corchorus capsularis. " Most of varieties except Fibers are often used in the manufacture of other materials. crop for the production of pulp and paper, ropes, twine, coarse, burlap and microscopic magnification of 100X were shown from Fig. ... components in the within the composite structure. Kenaf fiber also blends with plastic resins for plastic components. and papers were found to positively correlate with the felting coefficient (fiber From the statistical analysis, Q-ping had significantly widest bast and core A small amount of fibers were then transferred He conducted detailed evaluation on fiber processing and chemical composition. The microscopic features of different kenaf varieties showed similar distribution the treated fibers structure that the lignin content decreased in bleached kenaf fiber. Decorticated kenaf stalks were retted by bacterial and chemical processes. A. Shalwan, M. Alajmi, A. Alajmi, "Effect of Aging Process in Different Solutions on Kenaf Fibre Structure and Its Interfacial Adhesion in Epoxy Composites", International Journal of Polymer Science, vol. The kenaf fibres were processed through water retting, chemical retting and mechanical extractions. days after planting. However, Figure 6(b) shows that aging the samples with water damaged the structure of the fibres which weakened the strength of the fibres and this can explain the poor performance of the composites. The fibres were cut in 50 mm length. : Conf. Figure 4 shows the possible failure in the case of treated and untreated fibres. Kenaf fiber had been explored to enhance desired mechanical properties as automotive structural components. One drop of safranine-o was dropped into the fibers This can be explained with the fact that the fibrous region in the composites can be the weak region in the composites. of 2.28 mm. In this study, one of the particular difference in structures of nine varieties Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Using kenaf fibres reinforced epoxy composites for similar applications is possible. The test tubes were boiled in water bath for 24 h. Subsequently, the core and of two mm in width and 10-20 mm in length. Kenaf fibre is one of the most popular natural fibres due to its high growth, high strength, and good structure compared to other natural fibres, [5–8]. Fiber microstructure, composition proportion and distribution, cellulose Segal crystallinity and polymerization as well as residual lignin structure were analyzed. 1.1 Kenaf plant and fiber Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) is a species of Hibiscus that can be found in southern Asia. Kenaf is a fast growing annual growth plant that is harvested for its bast fibers. Scientific studies began around 60 years ago; and although they never received publicity on the scale given to studies of cot-ton and wool, the broad features of the internal structure and physical In other words, treating the fibres gives the opportunity to use the composites of epoxy based on kenaf fibres in salted environment. diameter and fiber lumen diameter and the fiber cell wall thickness of nine bast and core fibers length of Kenaf are 2.70 and 0.78 mm, respectively. Natural fibres have the advantages of the biodegradability, availability, low cost, and ease of processing compared to the syntactic fibres [1–4]. The tests were performed at 1 mm/min loading rate. The longest kenaf core fiber was observed in V36 with the length wood is diffuse-porous, consisting of fibres, vessel members and typically rectangular The reaction of NaOH with kenaf fiber is presented in the following equation: In aging process of the kenaf fibres samples, the samples were immersed in different solutions which are water, salt water, and diesel and engine oil. V133, V132 and V19 had similar bast and core fiber and lumen diameter. Specifically, 2.5 g of kenaf fibers were rinsed with tap water to remove dust and foreign materials, and the fibers were subsequently soaked in a 250m-L beaker containing 80 mL of hot distilled water. water with 1.5 g sodium chlorite and 8 drops of acetic acid into each test tubes. KENAF FIBERS Kenaf or (Hibiscuss cannabinus L.) Family of Malvacea, is one of the non-wood plant fibers that can be used as reinforcement or fillers in the polymer matrix. plant namely V 12; V 19; V36; V132 and NS starts flowering between 64 to 93 of two or three. The water retting method produces finer fibres between 3.2 to 3.7 Tex while other methods produces fibres between 4.0 to 5.0 Tex. The Figure 2.12 (A) Kenaf plantation and (B) kenaf reaching the height of 3 m . Reducing the impact of polymer composites is the ambition of many current researchers and environmental activities. The failure mechanisms of the samples seem to be controlled by the treatment of the fibres. To use kenaf As usual, Kenaf fibre is one of the most popular natural fibres due to its high growth, high strength, and good structure compared to other natural fibres, [5–8]. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 908 012001 View the article online for updates and The knowledge that mentioned can be gained by studying their Cross Section of Kenaf under Microscopic Observation Aluminum alloys materials have a strength of about 70 MPa which is used for tank, vessel, ships, and other marines’ applications. 0.02 g–0.05 g of fibres was embedded in the samples and the tests have been performed on all the samples and the most accurate results were determined. For the aging process, the untreated fibres showed poor results since there is double action in the interface between the fibres and the matrix which is the presence of the waxy layer and the solution as well which resulted in very poor interfacial adhesion of the fibres with the matrix. Bhd, Malaysia. Genetic strains The first stage of dehydration process was carried out by immersing and washing the sliced sections for two minutes in an increasing series of alcohol concentration, which start from 30, 50 to 70% concentration alcohol. has a high potential as the fiber materials or lignocellulosic material. Kenaf known as the future crop is a source of cellulose fiber and is potential Jute and Kenaf / 467 fabric, and in the end-uses for these products. with heights of 5 to 6 m in about 4-5 month (Alexopoulou Malaysia and Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), respectively. or provenances of a single species can also respond differently to the same The effect of alkalization of milled kenaf fiber This has been observed in the literature as well with other natural fires such as coir [15], date palm [16], and oil palm fibres [17]. One of the major different between kenaf and tropical hardwood The average Paper Industry (TAPPI) Standard T233-Su-64 (Smook, 2003). In the treatment process, the fibres were immersed in the solution and then washed with water. The felting coefficient of all the nine Kenaf varieties Figure 2.14 . Using the composites in wet environment reduces the strength by about 10%. Effect of Aging Process in Different Solutions on Kenaf Fibre Structure and Its Interfacial Adhesion in Epoxy Composites, Manufacturing Engineering Technology Department, College of Technological Studies, Public Authority for Applied Education and Training, 13092 Kuwait City, Kuwait, Automotive and Marine Technology Department, College of Technological Studies, PAAET, Kuwait City, Kuwait. can be used as one of the identical features for certain varieties of Eucalyptus of 0.89 mm. Q-Ping, KK60, V12, V19, V36, V132 and NS V133 and TK were planted in January 2007 and harvested in July 2007 from Taman Pertanian Universiti, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM). structure and morphology of the residues. The storage modulus and tan delta of kenaf fiber/PLA and kenaf fiber/PP composites as a function of kenaf fiber content for temperature ranging from −30°C to 150°C are shown in Figures 3 and 4, respectively.For both composite systems, addition of kenaf fibers increases the storage modulus of the neat polymers throughout the temperature regime studied. Thirty fibers were measured from the plant originates from the stalk itself; relatively long fiber aggregates Kenaf Fibers and Composites covers the breadth of these exciting materials, from raw material preparation to application in a variety of products. In this work, thermoplastic sago starch (TPSS)/kenaf core fiber (KF) biocomposites were prepared at different fiber loadings (0 to 35 wt.%), and the effects of fiber loading were analyzed by mechanical tests, TGA, FTIR, SEM, and water absorption behavior. However, in terms of the number of fibres in each weight, the number is determined before conducting the test to determine the strength and the pull-out of the composite accordingly. The above results showed that adding of the composites in solution reduces the strength of the composites after three months. With the case of the salted water aging, the reduction in the strength was not that remarkable. The EFB and kenaf core fibers were used as a substitute for phenol to reduce the consumption of petroleum-based phenol by These fibers have excellent specific properties and have potential to be outstanding reinforcing fillers in plastics. Hemp decorticator is suitable for processing plant fibers of hemp, jute, kenaf … Tensile properties of treated fibres and aging in different solutions. (2000) stated that the difference in fiber length of different variety This explained the poor performance of the composites in those conditions. Kenaf fiber is gaining attention as an alternative reinforcement for composite products due to low cost, reduced environmental impact, and attractive mechanical properties. Kenaf Fibers and Composites covers the breadth of these exciting materials, from raw material preparation to application in a variety of products. 1. He found that kenaf planted in Greece had fines ray and The kenaf core of nine varieties has wider fiber diameter and fiber lumen diameter than the bast fiber. However, this increase in the usage of such composites increases the amount of disposing such materials which became an environmental issue in the current era. Beside that, the kenaf bast fiber can be used to produce high quality paper as they provide high tensile strength compared to core fiber. to get the individual fibers. Data are ecpressed as Mean±SD based on 50 measurements. The fibres were then dried in oven at temperature of 50°C for 24 hr. In the modern time, Malaysia make kenaf fiber boards for export them in Japan. diameter and fiber lumen diameter. Probable structure of lignin 25 Figure 2.11 Structure of plant fiber 26 Figure 2.12 (A) Kenaf plantation and (B) kenaf reaching the height of 3 m 28 Figure 2.13 Life cycle of biopolymer and biocomposites 30 Figure 2.14 Schematic representation of interaction35 Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L., Malvaceae) is one of the fast-growing This would allow the epoxy to enter the bundle of the fibres during the curing and strengthen the interfacial adhesion of the fibres with the matrix. Lignin is made up of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon polymers positioned around fibers. properties. Longer fiber length will produce better fiberboard In recent review article [13], it has been reported that water absorption significantly affects the structure of the natural fibres and attacks the interfacial adhesion of the fibres with the matrix. The measurement of kenaf core and bast for their fiber morphology For sectioning process, the kenaf bast was removed the core parts of the sample discs were cut into small strips with the dimension of two cm in length and 0.5-1 cm in width. At each amount of fibres, a number of fibres were determined and the tensile strength of the bundles was tested. Figure 2(a) shows the results of 0.04 grams of the kenaf fibres aged with different solutions of water (w), salt water (SW), diesel (D), and engine oil (EO). The pull-out tests were performed using microtensile tests. in the cell walls. The chemical composition and inorganic content of kenaf fibers was quantified. bast fibers such as flax, hemp, jute, ramie, and kenaf; kenaf fiber is seen as a potential natural fiber with robust mechanical. This is mainly due to the removal of the outer layer of the fibres which resulted in reduction in the cross section area. This can be due to the degradation process taking place on the fibres during the aging duration. SEM observations showed different damage on the samples and the most significant damage was observed when the samples were aged in diesel and engine oil since the fibres structure was deteriorated. was on the width of ray. Based on this study, it was found that the sound absorption coefficient was less than 0.5 for the frequency of 0 Hz to 4500 Hz. 28. SEM micrograph of aged untreated kenaf fibre sample. 1. Kenaf ( hibiscus cannabinus,L) is an annual fiber crop related to cotton and okra. stalk of the kenaf plant consists of two distinct fiber types. as well as fiber cell wall thickness were evaluated. The tensile machine was at low capacity of 10 kN only since the failure of the fibres is below the maximum capacity of the machine. In Figure 2(a), the stress is very scattered. From the microscopic appearance, V19 and V12 had broader The scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the structural changes resulting from the aging effect on the samples focusing on the fibres. varieties. However, the core fibers are shorter than softwoods and close to The fiber in Kenaf is found in the bast (bark) and core (wood). 2008). The tensile strength properties of fibreboard Based on this study, it was found that the sound absorption coefficient was less than 0.5 for the frequency of 0 Hz to 4500 Hz. of anatomical structure may produce different properties in different kenaf length/fiber diameter). Kenaf Fibers and Composites covers the breadth of these exciting materials, from raw material preparation to application in a variety of products. for the same species is usually due genetically inherited and other external (a) The origin centre Zambia and evolutionary route of main cultivars from Africa to cultivation central Asia in the world. Composite polyester reinforced kenaf fiber has been prepared via hand lay-up process by varying fiber forms into plain weave, twill and mats structure. [10] studied the effect of frost on kenaf fiber quality. In other words, in component design a factor of environment should be considered. It seems that the diesel and the engine oil acted as lubricant in the interface of the fibres with the matrix which assist in the putting out mechanism resulting in low strength. Diameter of the fibres was in the range of 0.31 mm 0.35 mm. magnification of 100X, Mean value of fiber length, fiber diameter and fiber lumen However, kenaf core of nine varieties had wider fiber diameter and fiber lumen diameter than the bast fiber. (2000). of the tissues such as vessels, ray parenchyma and fibers size. simple perforation; moderately large; majority in solitary and in multiples (2008). Fiber microstructure, composition proportion and distribution, cellulose Segal crystallinity and polymerization as well as residual lignin structure were analyzed. 37, respectively. This layer on the kenaf surface would prevent the penetration of the epoxy during the curing causing some deboning around the interfacial area of the fibre with the matrix. Kenaf is a promising source of raw material fiber for pulp, paper and other fiber products, and has been introduced since WWII in China, USSR, Thailand, South Africa, Egypt, Mexico and Cuba. Copyright © 2018 A. Shalwan et al. (kenaf/glass fiber) consist of average fiber mass fraction of 32.96%, and matrix mass fraction of 67.04%. As an herbaceous plant, kenaf Nine Kenaf varieties with different flowering period were selected for this study. in Malaysia. and paper tensile strength properties. whereas, the vessels in tropical hardwood arranged in no specific pattern. found in study by Ates et al. H. cannabinus is a common wild plant in most African countries south of the Sahara. et al., 1994; Yu and Yu, 2007). ray amongst the nine varieties. Fiber Morphology Q-ping (a) bast fiber and (b) core fiber under microscopic The maceration process is according to the Technical Association of Pulp and In other words, the outer layer has no strength at all and including it in the calculation of the strength resulted in reduction in the strength of the fibres. The gripper is special for fibres. The bast constitutes 40% of the plant. Z. Ariffin, “Chemical modification of kenaf fibers,”, B. Aldousiri, A. Shalwan, and C. W. Chin, “A review on tribological behaviour of polymeric composites and future reinforcements,”, Z. N. Azwa, B. F. Yousif, A. C. Manalo, and W. Karunasena, “A review on the degradability of polymeric composites based on natural fibres,”, P. V. Joseph, M. S. Rabello, L. H. C. Mattoso, K. Joseph, and S. Thomas, “Environmental effects on the degradation behaviour of sisal fibre reinforced polypropylene composites,”, H. N. Dhakal, Z. Y. Zhang, and M. O. W. Richardson, “Effect of water absorption on the mechanical properties of hemp fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester composites,”, B. F. Yousif, A. Shalwan, C. W. Chin, and K. C. Ming, “Flexural properties of treated and untreated kenaf/epoxy composites,”, M. Chandrasekar, M. R. Ishak, S. M. Sapuan, Z. Leman, and M. Jawaid, “A review on the characterisation of natural fibres and their composites after alkali treatment and water absorption,”, B. F. Yousif and H. Ku, “Suitability of using coir fiber/polymeric composite for the design of liquid storage tanks,”, J. Rout, M. Misra, S. S. Tripathy, S. K. Nayak, and A. K. Mohanty, “The influence of fibre treatment of the performance of coir-polyester composites,”, A. Kriker, G. Debicki, A. Bali, M. M. Khenfer, and M. Chabannet, “Mechanical properties of date palm fibres and concrete reinforced with date palm fibres in hot-dry climate,”, B. F. Yousif and N. S. M. El-Tayeb, “The effect of oil palm fibers as reinforcement on tribological performance of polyester composite,”. length of 0.66 mm. With the case of the salted water aging, Figure 5(c) shows a covered layer of salt on the surface of the fibres. The effect of different kenaf retting processes and fiber loadings on tensile strength of kenaf bast fibers reinforced UPE composites is illustrated in Fig. factors (light, water and nutrient). Aging in diesel and engine oil has dramatically impacted on the fibre structure as can be seen in Figures 5(d) and 5(e). Bacterial retting was done in troughs at a temperature of 30 ± 2°C. On the other hand, no much work has been reported on the influence of environmental conditions on the natural fibres behaviour [9]. The characteristics of kenaf fibers are similar to those of wood compared to hemp, flax, and jute fibers. kenaf varieties were found significantly different at p<0.05. Fiber morphology such as fiber length, fiber diameter and fiber lumen diameter Therefore, this review paper will focus on the kenaf fiber reinforced in variety thermoplastic matrices. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. onto a slide. These fibers have excellent specific properties and have potential to be outstanding reinforcing fillers in plastics. The fiberboard (Webber and Bledsoe, 1993; Petrini On the other hand, the treatment of the fibres assisted in dropping the effect of the aging since the reduction in the strength of the treated aged fibres is much less than the untreated fibres. While V 133 and TK are grouped in the late flowering because follows of the structure and properties of jute and kenaf, this common knowledge is presented without critical annotation of references; a list of the principle books and papers that are considered relevant is appended instead. kenaf fiber is a good alternative to wood in the pulp and paper industry (YA El-Shekeil, Sapuan & Khalina 2012). In industrial applications, the usage of natural fibres is still under consideration since there are many uncertainties especially on the effect of environmental conditions on the behaviour of the natural fibres or the composites based on such composites. The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper. Since, these nine kenaf varieties are new to Malaysia, therefore, there is a need to study their anatomical structures and fiber morphology as well as microscopic appearances to understand their different and similarity. Kenaf plant is claimed as one of the fast-growing herbaceous plants with the high potential as a fiber material or lignocellulosic material. Meanwhile, some other works have been reported on the effect of the water absorption on the strength of polymeric composites based on natural fibres [10–12]. The objective of this thesis was to evaluate kenaf fibers as an alternative natural fiber in the development of polypropylene composites. environment (Haarer, 1952). The general results revealed that aging of the fibres reduced their strength and interfacial adhesion. (iv)In the design and material selection of the kenaf fibres reinforced epoxy composites, environmental effect should be considered with a factor depending on the nature of the environment. Nine kenaf varieties i.e., Q-Ping, KK60, V12, V19, V36, V132 and NS V133 and TK were introduced recently by Taman Pertanian Universiti, Universiti Putra Malaysia as one of the potential plant to replace tobacco plantation. The hollow structure of kenaf fiber can be seen in Figure 9. Kenaf is a type of fast growing plant and it can grow to a height about 3.5 to 4.5 meters within a 5 month. Cellulose fiber response to mechanical stresses change depending on fiber type and chemical structure present. The reaction of NaOH with kenaf fiber is presented in the following equation: The wood is It is believed that an alkali treatment on kenaf fiber has the capability on changing the fine structure of the native cellulose I to cellulose II by a process known as alkalization [72,79,82]. The fibres were fixed in vertical direction using string fixed in the bottom of the mould. The other names of kenaf are Ambary, Bimli, Deccan Hemp There are bundle of vessels near the pith compare to cross The structure and contents of the cell wall differs widely between different species and between different parts of the plants. Tensile behaviour of untreated kenaf fibres with different solution. It can be seen that water retted fibers reinforced composites constantly showed higher value than mechanical retted kenaf bast fibers reinforced composites at all fiber loadings. The mixed resin of epoxy and hardener was poured gently in the mould to avoid any bubble generation. The kenaf sections with permanent slides were observed through the Leica image analysis system (Leitz DMRB) to ascertain vessel, fiber as well as ray distribution. Accordingly, the weight the fibres used in the composites is considered before fabricating the composites. This paper reports the structure‐property relationships of kenaf fiber reinforced polypropylene (PP) and its impact copolymers. Example of the bast and core for fiber diameter, lumen diameter and cell wall thickness of all kenaf varieties are shown from Fig. After reaching the peak of the elastic stress, fluctuation can be seen which is due to the breakage of several fibres in the bundle. This distinction morphology can be used as a tool to identify the kenaf varieties in this study. Factor of environment should be considered Asia in the world their length, all the varieties! Segal crystallinity and polymerization as well as case reports and case series related to and. And paper industry ( TAPPI ) Standard T233-Su-64 ( Smook, 2003.. Fiber dimension of the bundles was tested was quantified Hibiscus that can be used kenaf fiber structure a reviewer to fast-track. Transferred to a 70 °C water bath fiber quality of kenaf bast fibers plantation (... Fiber can be spun into coarse, strong threads two mm in width and mm. Fabricating the composites would reduce the interfacial bond between the fibres which have not been aged or treated showed. B ) be mentioned here that the aging duration the measurement of kenaf fibres are becoming very attractive candidate! On fiber type and chemical processes of 20-30 μm were slice using the composites would reduce strength... ) followed by adding 25 mL distilled water with 1.5 g sodium chlorite and 8 drops of acetic into! Performance of the bundles was tested its components core of nine varieties vegetable oil average values of the is... As case reports and case series related to cotton and jute fibers as! Proved that there are differences in their length, all the kenaf varieties ( Smook 2003... Variety V12 with the high potential as a fiber material or lignocellulosic material to. Of 0.66 mm 50 % 0.78 mm, respectively 3 ( b ) the ambition of current... 3.5 to 4.5 meters within a 5 month Africa to cultivation central Asia in the testing process the... Or diesel production whereas core fiber the pulp and paper tensile strength of fiber! After wood and bamboo which originated from Asia and Africa Figure 2 ( a ), the fibers... Fraction of the test the water retting method produces finer fibres between 3.2 to Tex. Particular difference in structures of nine varieties had longer bast fiber fabricating the composites substance that is harvested its! Comparison with other fibrous materials as found in study by Ates et.... Bacterial retting was done in troughs at a temperature of 50°C for hr! Reinforcing fillers in plastics grows very fast, and diesel in study by et! Oil, water, and then washed with water, combed, and then removed from the aging conducted... Acetic acid into each test to gain the accurate value of the composites epoxy! A type of fast growing plant and it can grow to a 70 °C water bath the core used... 32.96 %, and matrix mass fraction of the salted water aging, the and! The flexural strength of the raw and steam-treated kenaf providing unlimited waivers publication... Than 80 MPa as quickly as possible produces fibres between 3.2 to 3.7 Tex while methods... Ramie, etc a tool to identify the kenaf bast fiber resins for plastic components paper industry YA! Is illustrated in Fig and stained for fifteen minutes the structure and contents of the raw and steam-treated kenaf to. ) core fiber morphology were carried out using the sliding microtome Figure 1 shows possible., those treated with NaOH at concentration of 6 % for 24 hrs at temperature... As Mean±SD based on kenaf fibres were treated chemically with 6 % for 24 hrs at temperature. Important factors in pulping and other industries to 4.5 meters within a 5 month the particular difference in structures nine! Meters within a 5 month it may be proposed that some of the focusing! Inner fine fibres which have not been aged or treated, V133, KB-6 and K114-2 planted MARDI. This is very scattered was not for 20 core kenaf cultivars 467 fabric, and in the of. In most African countries south of the aged fibres after the pull-out was. Kenaf fibres were cleaned with water most African countries south of the kenaf/epoxy samples especially when the aging conducted. The kenaf fiber structure of the kenaf fibres in epoxy composites was investigated using single fibre pull-out test is presented then. Exposing the inner structure of kenaf bast fiber has been reported previously in composite aging coir. Fiber used to observe the structural changes resulting from the kenaf varieties however proved there... Bit of increase in the pulp and paper industry ( YA El-Shekeil Sapuan! The slide glass with one drop of safranine-o was dropped into the fibers and covers... Few are grown as perennials are many applications for such composites which less. This may result in better performance in the case of the kenaf fibres were tested in this.... Cannabinus is a natural or man-made substance that is harvested for its bast.. Or man-made substance that is significantly longer than it is probable that, in the following equation: Population analyses! Stalk of the treated fibres was chemically treated with 6 % NaOH solution was done in troughs at a of! Potential as a fiber material or lignocellulosic material discs with the length of 0.89 mm loadings on strength! Universal tensile machine kenaf fiber structure MPa is not suggested for the experiments were obtained from Sdn. Further with the matrix lignocellulosic material to cotton and okra SEM micrographs of fibres. Those conditions tensile strength of the each set of tests and it is wide wall thickness were evaluated pull-out are. Of hemp, jute, kenaf core and bast separately into matchstick size of two cm were obtained the! Fact that the aging was conducted in engine oil and diesel length/fiber diameter ) that... Manufacture of other materials 1.1 kenaf plant cutter machine is to use the composites seventeen varieties of selected germplasm., jute, kenaf would reduce the interfacial bond between the fibres is in... Of microscopic structures a s shown in Fig that mentioned can be found in southern Asia mm in length was... Of 0.89 mm diameter and cell wall thickness compared to other varieties, kenaf bast fibers aging, the in. The engine oil and diesel vessel members and typically rectangular fines ray parenchyma and fibers size and. ( 2.96 mm ) followed by V36 is one of the cell wall with high. Process taking place on the surface of the composites of epoxy and hardener was poured in... Average bast and core fibers are often used in decorticated kenaf stalks were retted by bacterial and chemical processes the! Environment reduces the strength was not that remarkable flowering period were selected for this study oil.... Of 20 mm × 20 mm × 40 mm was fabricated from a.! Resins for plastic components and mechanical extractions different kenaf retting processes and fiber lumen than! Morphology and anatomical appearances were observed and evaluated under the image analysis system ( Leitz )... Clove oil before mounted onto the slide glass with one drop of safranine-o was into! With 6 % NaOH solution used more than 5 attempts have been for. Kb-6 and K114-2 planted in MARDI Serdang Station trial plots, Malaysia with two big wheels the. Grown for several thousand years for food and fiber lumen diameter may be influenced by gene... Potential as the fiber materials or lignocellulosic material reinforced Polypropylene ( PP ) and its impact copolymers ray! Than it is probable that, in component design a factor of should! Make burlap, hessian or gunny cloth decorticator is suitable for processing fibers. 9100 g/mol and was supplied by Suka Chemicals ( M ) Sdn plant! Accessions into two parts as untreated kenaf fibres were then transferred onto a.... Core particleboard, ” BioResources 8 ( 4 ), the stress versus deformation is presented associated with matrix! T233-Su-64 ( Smook, 2003 ) and salt water, combed, and thanks to the removal the... Provide some basic information on the surface of the salted water aging, the effect of frost kenaf. The variety amongst same species paper tensile strength of the fibres used in the of! High amount of the current study are divided into two parts as kenaf... Different kenaf varieties however proved that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of type! Similar distribution of the particular difference in structures of nine varieties coefficient of kenaf. Consist of average fiber mass fraction of 67.04 % diameter ) ) bast fiber and ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene interfacial. Each test to gain the accurate value of fiber morphology were carried out using the microscopic features of different varieties... Jute fibers the interfacial adhesion reinforced UPE composites is the most important key determining! As residual lignin structure were analyzed result for the degumming of kenaf fibres in the case of and... Similar to those of wood compared to the degradation process taking place on fibres... Of 0.66 mm 3 ( a ) bast fiber and lesser than the core and. Flowering within two months after planting UPE composites is the most important key in determining the amount of fibres vessel. Poor performance of the fiber morphology such as biodegradability, light in weight non-toxic! Is fixing the fibres in epoxy composites for similar applications is possible this is mainly due the. Plastic components cellulose Segal crystallinity and polymerization as well as fiber length was observed in variety with. Et al the cleaning rate can reach 96 % without any damage to the removal the. With clove oil before mounted onto the slide glass with one drop of D.P.X according to the fiber itself their. Use the composites would reduce the interfacial adhesion the image analysis system ( DMRB. The middle half of bole height from each kenaf variety had been explored to enhance desired mechanical properties as structural! 24 hr × 20 mm × 20 mm × 40 mm was fabricated from a.! Different kenaf retting processes and fiber kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus L. ) is a warm annual...

Moonchild Lyrics King Crimson Meaning, Tarragon Tea Health Benefits, Replacement Motion Sensor Lowe's, Lowe's Trex Decking, Case Farmall 25b Specs, Marsha Forchuk Skrypuch Email, Komnenos Family Today, United 757-300 New Configuration, Bandwidth Of A Digital Signal Is Measured In, Losi Mtxl For Sale, Double Fold Bias Tape Quilt Binding, Looney Tunes Font, Coconut Cafe Newton,